Neue, Alte and Modern Pinakothek Art Gallery Munich: History, Permanent Collection, Exhibitions.


Pinakothek Galleries

Three museums in Munich form the city's Kunstareal or 'area of fine art'. They are:

The Neue Pinakothek
The Alte Pinakothek
The Pinakothek der Moderne
Art Museums in Europe

Each of these outstanding German art museums focuses on a separate area of culture. The Neue or New Pinakothek specializes in famous painters from Europe of the 18th and 19th century and its collection of 19th century masterpieces is one of the finest in the world. The Alte or Old Pinakothek focuses on Old Masters, while the Modern Pinakothek concentrates on 20th century art.

Berlin Street Scene (1913).
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner.

Before visiting the Pinakothek, see
Art Evaluation: How to Appreciate Art.

Gemaldegalerie Alte Meister Dresden
Gemaldegalerie SMPK, Berlin
Kunsthistorisches Museum
Kunstmuseum Basel
Mauritshuis Art Museum
Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Hermitage St Petersburg
Tretyakov Gallery Moscow
Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts
National Gallery London
British Museum
Tate Gallery
Courtauld Gallery
British Royal Art Collection

The Neue Pinakothek

Founded in 1853 by King Ludwig I of Bavaria (1825-1848) to house the Royal Bavarian collection, this museum presents European fine art painting and sculpture from 1700-1900, encompassing styles such as Neoclassical art and Romanticism, 19th century Realism, French Impressionism and the broad style of Post-Impressionism.

Since 1915 the Neue Pinakothek has been owned by the Bavarian state. Although its original home was destroyed during World War II, it was relocated in 1981 to a new postmodernist centre designed by the architect Alexander Freiherr von Branca.

Prado Museum Madrid
Reina Sofia, Madrid
Uffizi Gallery Florence
Pitti Palace, Florence
Capodimonte Museum, Naples
Guggenheim Venice
Antwerp Museum of Fine Arts
Musee Conde, Chantilly
Louvre Museum
Musee d'Orsay
Strasbourg Museum of Fine Arts
Pompidou Centre

The Neue Pinakothek. One of the
best art museums in Europe.

For a list of the finest works of
painting and sculpture, by the
world's most famous artists, see:
Greatest Paintings Ever
Oils, watercolours, mixed media
from 1300-present.
Greatest Sculptures Ever
Works in stone, bronze, wood
from 33,000 BCE-present.

For top creative practitioners, see:
Best Artists of All Time.


On display at the Neue Pinakothek are approximately 400 paintings and 50 pieces of sculpture, including the following top works:

German History Paintings

Wilhelm von Kaulbach: King Ludwig I Surrounded by Artists
Karl Theodor von Piloty: Seni and Wallenstein
Franz von Defregger: Das letzte Aufgebot
Hans Markart: Die Falknerin

German Classicists (Deutschrömer)

Friedrich Overbeck: Italia and Germania
Friedrich Wilhelm von Schadow: The Holy Family beneath the Portico
Heinrich Maria von Hess: Marchesa Marianna Florenzi
Peter von Hess: The Entry of King Othon of Greece into Nauplia
Peter von Cornelius: The three Marys at the Tomb
Hans von Marees: Self-Portrait
Arnold Böcklin: Pan in the Reeds
Anselm Feuerbach: Medea
Hans Thoma: Landscape in the Taunus

For details of any important
shows being staged at the
Pinakothek Museums in Munich,
see: Art News Headlines.

Finest Art Museums in America.

For an outstanding collection of
Ashkenazi, Sephardi and Oriental
Judaica, crafts and artifacts,
see: Jewish Art Museum.

For a list of the world's greatest
libraries and museum collections
of Muslim culture, see:
Museums of Islamic Art.


German Romanticism

Caspar David Friedrich: Garden Bower
Karl Friedrich Schinkel: Cathedral Towering over a Town
Carl Blechen: Building of the Devil's Bridge

German Realism

Wilhelm Leibl: Portrait of Frau Gedon
Franz von Lenbach: Village Street
Adolph Menzel: Living-Room with the Artist's Sister

See also our article: How To Appreciate Paintings.


German Impressionists

Max Liebermann: Boys Bathing
Lovis Corinth: Portrait of Eduard, Count von Keyserling
Max Slevogt: The Day's Work is Done

International Works (c.1750-1800)

Goya: Plucked Turkey; Don José Queraltó as Spanish Army Doctor
Jacques-Louis David: Anne-Marie-Louise Thélusson, Comtesse de Sorcy
Johann Friedrich August Tischbein: Nicolas Châtelain in the Garden

English School (c.1700-1830)

Gainsborough: Mrs. Thomas Hibbert; Landscape with Shepherd and Flock
William Hogarth: Richard Mounteney
John Constable: View of Dedham Vale from East Bergholt
Sir Joshua Reynolds: Captain Philemon Pownall
David Wilkie: Reading the Will
George Stubbs: The Pointer
JMW Turner: Ostende

French Romanticism and French Realism (c.1800-1860)

Eugene Delacroix: Clorinda Rescues Olindo and Sophronia
Honore Daumier: The Drama
Théodore Gericault: Artillery Train Passing a Ravine
Gustave Courbet: Landscape near Maizières
Jean-François Millet: Farmer Inserting a Graft on a Tree

French Impressionists

Edouard Manet: Luncheon in the Studio; Monet Painting on His Studio Boat
Claude Monet: The Bridge at Argenteuil
Pierre-Auguste Renoir: Portrait of a Young Woman
Camille Pissarro: Street in Upper Norwood
Alfred Sisley: The Road to Hampton Court
Paul Cezanne: The Railway Cutting
Paul Gauguin: The Birth
Edgar Degas: Woman Ironing
Vincent van Gogh: Sunflowers and The Weaver


Late 19th, Early 20th Century Artists

Giovanni Segantini: L'aratura
Gustav Klimt: Portrait of Margaret Stonborough-Wittgenstein
Paul Signac: S.Maria della Salute
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec: Le Jeune Routy à Céleyran
Edouard Vuillard: Café Scene
Ferdinand Hodler: Tired of Life
Edvard Munch: Woman in Red Dress
Pierre Bonnard: Lady at the Mirror
Egon Schiele: Agony


The Neue Pinakothek's collection of 3-D art includes sculptures by: Antonio Canova (Paris), Max Klinger (Elsa Asenijeff), Pablo Picasso (Le Fou), Auguste Rodin (La Femme Accroupie), Rudolph Schadow (Woman Tying Her Sandal), and Bertel Thorvaldsen (Adonis) to name but a few.

The Alte Pinakothek

Designed in 1826 by architect Leo von Klenze for King Ludwig I of Bavaria, as a home for the Wittelsbach art collection in 1826 the building was seen as a model for museums throughout Europe following its opening in 1836. Damaged during the Second World War, the museum was rebuilt and reopened in the late 1950s.

The Collection

The Alte Pinakothek's collection of artworks was begun during the 16th century by William IV (1508-1550) who commissioned a range of history paintings. Later rulers augmented the collection with their own favourites. Elector Maximilian I (1597-1651) bought works by Northern Renaissance artist Albrecht Dürer; Maximilian II (1679-1726) collected Dutch and Flemish paintings; Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine (1690-1716) added works by Dutch painters. King Ludwig I of Bavaria preferred to buy Renaissance works from Italy, Germany and Holland.


The museum's collection, which - like all the Pinakothek galleries - is managed by the Bavarian State Painting Collections includes one of the most outstanding holdings of Early Italian, Old German, Old Dutch and Flemish old master paintings in the world. Over 800 such works are displayed in the Old Pinakothek, as well as in other venues in Bavaria including the baroque galleries in Schleissheim Palace and Neuburg Palace.

German Artists (c.1300-1700)

This section features works of German Gothic art (1200-1450), paintings from the German Renaissance - including those of the Danube School and other circles - as well as examples of German Baroque art (1550-1750).

Stefan Lochner: Adoration of the Christ Child by the Virgin
Matthias Grunewald: Saints Erasmus and Maurice
Albrecht Durer: The Four Apostles; Paumgartner Altar; Self-portrait, Fur Coat
Hans Baldung Grien: Markgrave Christoph of Baden
Albrecht Altdorfer: The Battle of Issus
Michael Pacher: Altar of the Church Fathers
Lucas Cranach: Lamentation Beneath the Cross
Adam Elsheimer: The Flight into Egypt
Hans Holbein: St. Sebastian Altar and Martyrdom of St. Sebastian
Hans von Aachen: The Triumph of Truth
Johann Liss: Death of Cleopatra


Dutch Paintings (c.1400-1800)

Roger van der Weyden: Columba Altar
Dieric Bouts: Ecce Agnus Dei
Hieronymus Bosch: Fragment from the Last Judgment
Frans Hals: Portrait of Willem Croes
Rembrandt: The Deposition and The Holy Family
Carel Fabritius: Self-Portrait
Gerard Terborch: The Flea-Catcher
Jacob van Ruisdael: Torrent with Oak Trees

Flemish Paintings (c.1500-1800)

Pieter Brueghel the Elder: Harbour Scene with Christ Preaching
Hans Memling: The Seven Joys of the Virgin
Peter Paul Rubens: The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus.
Anthony van Dyck: Self-Portrait and Susanna and the Elders
Jacob Jordaens: Satyr with Peasants

Proto and Early Italian Renaissance (c.1400-1490)

Giotto: The Last Supper
Fra Angelico: Entombment of Christ
Domenico Ghirlandaio: Virgin and Child with Saints
Sandro Botticelli: Lamentation of Christ
Fra Filippo Lippi: The Annunciation

High Renaissance

Raphael: The Canigiani Holy Family; Madonna della tenda; Madonna Tempi
Leonardo da Vinci: Madonna of the Carnation
Antonello da Messina: Annunciata
Titian: Vanity, and Portrait of Charles V
Tintoretto: Christ in the House of Mary and Martha

Later Italian exhibits include works by the great Venetian rococo painters Tiepolo (1696-1770), Canaletto (1697-1768) and Francesco Guardi (1712–1793)

French Artists (c.1500-1800)

Claude Lorrain: The Expulsion of Hagar
Nicolas Poussin: Midas and Bacchus
François Boucher: Madame de Pompadour and Reclining Girl
Jean-Baptiste-Simeon Chardin: Woman Cleaning Turnips
Jean-Honoré Fragonard: Girl with Dog

Spanish Paintings (c.1500-1800)

El Greco: The Disrobing of Christ
Diego Velazquez: Young Spanish Gentleman
Jose de Ribera: Saint Bartholomew
Zurbaran: Entombment of St. Catherine of Alexandria on Mount Sinai
Bartolome Murillo: Beggar Boys Eating Grapes and Melon


The Pinakothek der Moderne

Designed by Stephan Braunfels and opened in 2002, the modernist building displays four separate collections: Art (in association with the National Collection of Modern and Contemporary Arts), Architecture (in association with Munich Technical University's Museum of Architecture), Design (in association with the National Museum for Design and Applied Arts (Neue Sammlung) and Works on Paper (in association with the National Collection of Works on Paper). Art historians and critics regard Modern Pinakothek as one of the foremost galleries of modern art in Europe.

Collection of Modern Art

The museum's display encompasses all major movements and styles of modern and contemporary art including: Expressionism, Fauvism, Cubism, Der Blaue Reiter (Blue Rider), Die Brucke (The Bridge), Die Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity) - all schools of German Expressionism (1900-15) - Dada (1916-24), the Bauhaus design school (1919-33), Surrealism (1925-40), Abstract Expressionism (1945-60), Pop Art (c.1960-72) and Minimalism (c.1960-75).

German Expressionism

This style is exemplified by numerous artists in the collection including: Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (1880-1938), Karl Schmidt-Rottluff (1884-1976), Emil Nolde (1867-1956), Franz Marc (1880-1916), Wassily Kandinsky (1844-1944), August Macke (1887-1914), Oskar Kokoschka, Alexei von Jawlensky (1864-1941), Otto Dix (1891-1969), Paul Klee (1879-1940), and Max Beckmann (1884-1950).

International 20th century Artists

The collection includes works by: Goya, Cubists Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, Fernand Leger, and Juan Gris and Robert Delaunay; Surrealists Salvador Dali, Joan Miro and Rene Magritte; as well as other 20th century masters like Lyonel Feininger, Max Ernst, László Moholy-Nagy, Giorgio de Chirico, and Francis Bacon, to name but a few.

Contemporary Art (1950s-present)

The Pinakothek der Moderne also exhibits a wide range of works exemplifying the major trends of contemporary representational and abstract art of the later 20th century. This features artists such as: Andy Warhol, Antoni Tapies, Robert Rauschenberg, Robert Motherwell, Jasper Johns, Franz Kline, Joseph Beuys, Cy Twombly, Jorg Immendorff, Willem de Kooning, Richard Serra, Georg Baselitz, Henry Moore, Gerhard Richter, Bruce Nauman, Martin Kippenberger, David Salle, David Hockney and many others.

Works on Paper

This area of the collection features old German, Dutch and Italian drawings, including rare masterpieces by Albrecht Dürer, Rembrandt van Rijn, Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, as well as later works by Paul Cezanne, Henri Matisse, Paul Klee and David Hockney.


Established in 1925, the museum's holding of applied modernist art numbers some 70,000 items of industrial design, graphic design and crafts. Areas covered include car design, computer design, artistic jewellery and furniture, among others.

• For details of the development of painting and sculpture, see: History of Art.
• For more information about the world's greatest art museums, see: Homepage.

Art Types
© All rights reserved.