Greatest Paintings (Part One):
Finest Pictures By Old Masters.

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Greatest Paintings Ever (1300-1850)


Jupiter and Io (1530) By Correggio.

Introduction

Our list of over 200 masterpieces encompasses works in fresco, tempera, oils and watercolour, across all the painting genres, by Europe's Old Masters, (eg. Van Eyck, Leonardo Michelangelo, Rembrandt, Vermeer, Goya) as well as famous painters from the 18th and early 19th centuries, such as JMW Turner. Selected by our Editor, these works exemplify most major movements in the history of art, and serve as a basis for further study into the world of fine art painting.

For Greatest Paintings Part Two (1850-present)
please see: Greatest Modern Paintings.

See also our list of Greatest Renaissance Paintings (1400-1600), and our Greatest Portrait Paintings as well as our selected list of the Top 100 Greatest Genre Paintings.

See also our educational articles for students and teachers:

Art Evaluation: How to Appreciate Art
How to Appreciate Paintings
Famous Paintings Analyzed

Works are Listed Chronologically under Painter's Name
A -
B - C - D - E-F - G - H - I-J-K - L - M-N-O - P - Q-R - S - T - U-V - W-Z

A

Albrecht Altdorfer (1480-1538)
German painter, noted for religious works, landscapes, etchings and woodcuts.
Battle of Alexander at Issus (1529) oil on panel, Alte Pinakothek Munich.

Andrea del Sarto (1486-1530)
Florentine artist known as the "faultless painter", had Venetian sense of colour and tone.
Madonna of the Harpies (1517) oil on wood, Uffizi Gallery, Florence.

Antonello da Messina (1430-1479)
Was allegedly taught oil painting by Jan Van Eyck; influenced Venetian Giovanni Bellini.
Portrait of a Man (1475) oil on panel, National Gallery, London.
Condottiero (1475) oil on wood, Louvre, Paris.

Giuseppe Arcimboldo (1527-93)
Italian Mannerist painter, known for his surrealist portrait faces of fruit & vegetables.
Winter (1573) oil on canvas, Louvre, Paris.
The Gardener (A Joke with Vegetables) oil on panel, Museo Civico, Cremona.
Emperor Rudolf II as Vertumnus (1591) oil on wood, Skoklosters Slott, Sweden.

LEADING PUBLIC COLLECTIONS of PAINTING
Global: see Best Art Museums in the World.
European: see Art Museums in Europe.
United States: see Art Museums in America.

B

Hans Baldung Grien (1484-1545)
Painter & graphic artist of the German Renaissance, noted for his fantasy and grotesque imagery.
Coronation of the Virgin Altarpiece (1512-16) oil on wood, Frieburg im Breisgau.
The Three Ages of Man with Death (c.1540) oil on panel, Prado, Madrid.

Jacopo Bassano (1517-92)
Venetian painter outclassed only by Titian, Tintoretto and Veronese.
The Last Supper (1547) oil on canvas, Galleria Borghese, Rome.

Gentile Bellini (c.1429-1507)
Noted for historical view-paintings (vedute) of Venice, and Doges' portraits.
Procession of the True Cross in St Mark's Square (1496) Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice.

Giovanni Bellini (1430-1516)
Top Venetian painter of the Italian Renaissance, with father Jacopo, brother Gentile.
St Job Altarpiece (1480) oil/tempera on panel, Galleria dell'Accademia, Venice.
Portrait of The Doge Leonardo Loredan (1501-4) oil on wood, National Gallery, London.

Bernardo Bellotto (1721-80)
Venetian painter, nephew & pupil of Canaletto.
Entrance to the Grand Canal, Venice (1741) oil, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge.
View of the Ponte delle Navi, Verona (1745) oil on canvas, Private Collection.

Hieronymus Bosch (1450-1516)
Real name Jerome van Aken, Dutch 15th century moralising artist, early Surrealist.
Garden of Earthly Delights (1504) oil on wood, Prado Museum, Madrid.
The Last Judgement (Triptych) (1505-10) oil on wood, Bildendenkunste, Vienna.
Ecce Homo (1515-6) oil on panel, Fine Art Museum, Ghent.

Alessandro Botticelli (1445-1510)
One of the greatest Florentine painters of the early Renaissance.
Revolt Against the Law of Moses (1481-2) fresco, Sistine Chapel, Vatican.
Birth of Venus (1482-6) tempera on canvas, Uffizi, Florence.
La Primavera (1482-3) tempera on panel, Uffizi, Florence.

Francois Boucher (1703-70)
French Rococo painter, draughtsman, etcher and designer.
Madame de Pompadour (1758) oil on canvas, Victoria & Albert Museum, London.

Dierec Bouts (1415-75)
Netherlandish painter influenced by painterly methods of Van Eyck & Van der Weyden.
Last Supper (1464-7) oil on wood, Church of Saint Peter, Leuven, Belgium.

Jozef Brandt (1841-1915)
Polish painter, noted for large-scale paintings of 17th century cossack battles.
On Reconnaissance (1876) oil on canvas, Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.

Agnolo Bronzino (1503-72)
Florentine Mannerist painter, pupil of Pontormo, worked for Cosimo I de' Medici.
Portrait of Lucrezia Panciatichi (1540) oil on panel, Uffizi, Florence.

Pieter Bruegel the Elder (c.1525-1569)
Dutch artist, greatest painter of genre-paintings & people landscapes of his period.
Netherlandish Proverbs (1559) oil on oak, Staatliche Museen, Berlin.
Mad Meg (Dulle Griet) (1562) oil on panel, Mayer van den Bergh Museum, Antwerp.
Tower of Babel (1563) oil on wood, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
Hunters in the Snow (1565) oil on panel, K.M., Vienna.
The Census of Bethlehem (1566) tempera on panel, Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Brussels.
Massacre of the Innocents (1564) oil on panel, K.M., Vienna.
Parable of the Blind (1568), Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples.
The Peasant Wedding (1568) oil on oak, K.M., Vienna.

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C

Robert Campin (1375-1444)
Tournai-based Dutch Master of Flemalle, key founder of Early Netherlandish School.
Seilern (Entombment) Triptych (1410) gold leaf on panel, Courtauld Institute, London.
Merode Altarpiece (c.1427) Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Werl Altarpiece (Diptych) (1438) oil on panel, Prado Museum, Spain.

Canaletto (1697-1768)
Venetian painter & draughtsman, noted for precise architectural pictures of Venice.
The Molo Against the Zecca (before 1740) oil on canvas, Private Collection.
Basin of San Marco on Ascension Day (c.1740) oil on canvas, National Gallery, London.

Caravaggio (1573-1610)
Greatest early 17th century Italian painter, founder of Tenebrism.
Judith and Holoferns (1599) oil on canvas, Palazzo Barberini, Rome.
Conversion on the way to Damascus (1601) oil on canvas, Cerasi Chapel, Rome.
Supper at Emmaus (1601) oil and tempera, National Gallery, London.
The Entombment (1602-4) oil on canvas, Vatican Museums.

Annibale Carracci (1560-1609)
Bologna-based painter, involved in transition from Mannerism to Baroque.
Wall and Ceiling Frescos in the Farnese Gallery (1595-1600), Rome.

John Constable (1776-1837)
England's greatest ever naturalistic landscape painter, early plein-air painter.
Boatbuilding Near Flatford Mill (1815) oil on canvas, Victoria & Albert Museum, London.
The Hay Wain (1821) oil on canvas, National Gallery, London.

John Singleton Copley (1738-1815)
One of the greatest 18th century portraitists and history painters in American Colonial art.
The Death of Major Pierson (1782-4) oil on canvas, Tate Gallery, London.

Correggio (1489-1534)
High Renaissance Italian artist of Emilia, noted for altarpieces, and illusionistic frescoes.
The Assumption of the Virgin (1524-30) fresco, Duomo ceiling, Parma Cathedral.
Lamentation (Deposition) (1525) Galleria Nazionale, Parma.
Jupiter and Io (1531-2) oil on canvas, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.

John Sell Cotman (1782-1842)
Founded Norwich School of English landscape art, with John Crome.
Chirk Aqueduct (1804) watercolour, Victoria & Albert Museum, London.

Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553)
German painter, woodcut artist, noted for portraits, nudes, history paintings.
Portrait of Luther and Wife (Diptych) (1529) oil on wood, Uffizi, Florence.

Aelbert Cuyp (1620-91)
Dordrecht Dutch Realist landscape painter.
Dordrecht from the North (1650) oil on canvas, Rothschild Collection.
River Landscape with Horseman & Peasants (1658) oil on canvas, National Gallery, London.

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D

Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825)
Greatest French Neoclassicist painter.
Oath of the Horatii (1785) oil on canvas, Louvre.
Death of Marat (1793) oil on canvas, Musees Royaux des Beaux Arts, Brussels.

Domenico Ghirlandaio (1449-94)
Goldsmith-trained Florentine painter, renowned for his popular religious frescoes.
Old Man with a Young Boy (1490) oil on panel, Louvre, Paris.

Duccio Di Buoninsegna (1255-1319)
Most famous painter of the Sienese School of pre-Renaissance painting.
Maesta (1308-11), tempera on panel, Siena Museo dell'Opera del Duomo.
Stroganoff Madonna and Child (c.1300), tempera on panel, Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Albrecht Durer (1471-1528)
German printmaker, painter, self-portraitist, greatest Northern Renaissance artist.
Adam and Eve (1507) oil on wood, Prado Museum, Madrid.
The Four Apostles (2 panels) (1526) oil on wood, Alte Pinakothek, Munich.

Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641)
After Rubens, the most famous Flemish painter; one of the greatest ever portraitists.
Portrait of Cardinal Bentivoglio (1623) oil on canvas, Palazzo Pitti, Florence.
King Charles I of England in Hunting Dress (1635) oil on canvas, Louvre, Paris.

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E-F

Adam Elsheimer (1578-1610)
German landscape painter, etcher, draughtsman, noted for small-scale paintings on copper.
Flight into Egypt (1609) oil on copper, Alte Pinakothek, Munich.

Jan van Eyck (1390-1441)
Most famous artist of early Netherlandish School, greatest pioneer of oil painting.
Ghent Altarpiece (1432) oil on wood, Saint Bavo Catherdal, Ghent.
Portrait of a Man in a Red Turban (1433) oil on wood, National Gallery, London.
Arnolfini Portrait (1434) oil on wood, National Gallery.
The Rolin Madonna (1435) oil on wood, Louvre, Paris.

Jean Fouquet (1420-81)
Greatest painter of the French Renaissance.
Melun Diptych (1450-55) oil on panel, Koninklijk Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp.
Portrait of Charles VII of France (1445-50) oil on -panel, Louvre, Paris.

Fra Angelico (1387-1455)
Dominican Friar, Florentine religious painter, early Renaissance.
The Linaiuoli Triptych (1433) tempera on panel, Museo di San Marco, Florence.
The Annunciation (c.1450) fresco, San Marco Musem, Florence.

Fra Filippo Lippi (1406-69)
Early Renaissance Florentine painter, influenced by Masaccio, known for his religious frescos.
Annunciation with Two Kneeling Donors (1445) oil, GNd'AA, Rome.

Jean Honore Fragonard (1732-1806)
One of the greatest French Rococo painters, pupil of Francois Boucher.
The Swing (1767) oil on canvas, Wallace Collection, London.
The Bolt (1777) oil on canvas, Louvre, Paris.

Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840)
The greatest German Romantic landscape artist of the 19th century.
Winter Landscape (1811) oil on canvas, National Gallery, London.
Man and Woman Gazing at the Moon (1830-5) oil on canvas, Nationalgalerie, Berlin.

Henry Fuseli (1741-1825)
Swiss-born Romantic painter, draughtsman, active in England.
The Nightmare (1781) oil on canvas, Detroit Institute of Arts.

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G

Thomas Gainsborough (1727-88)
Englands greatest 18th century portrait and landscape artist.
The Painter's Daughters with a Cat (1761) oil on canvas, National Gallery, London.
Jonathan Buttall: "Blue Boy" (1770) oil on canvas, Huntington Library & Gallery, San Marino.

Artemisia Gentileschi (1597-1651)
Female Italian Renaissance artist, one of the greatest Caravaggisti.
Judith Beheading Holloferns (1620) oil on canvas, Uffizi (best version of this scene).

Giorgione (Giorgio da Castelfranco) (1477-1510)
Venetian genius, considered one of the founders of modern painting.
The Tempest (1508) oil on canvas, Galleria dell'Accademia, Venice.
Reclining Venus (1508-10) oil on canvas, Gemaldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden.

Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337)
Proto-Renaissance artist, noted for Padua frescos and a new non-hieratic Byzantine style of art.
Scrovegni Chapel Frescoes (1304-6) Padua, Italy.

Thomas Girtin (1775-1802)
English watercolourist. Could have been England's greatest landscape artist, according to Turner.
Berry Pomeroy Castle, Devon (1798) watercolour, Sothebys London.

Hugo Van Der Goes (1440–1482)
Netherlandish Renaissance painter, his work had a significant influence on painting in Florence.
Portinari Altarpiece (Triptych) (1475) oil on wood, Uffizi, Florence.

Francisco Goya (1746-1828)
Highly original and influential Spanish painter, printmaker, draughtsman.
Naked Maja (Maja des Nuda) (1800) oil on canvas, Prado Museum, Madrid.
Portrait of Charles IV and His Family (1800) Prado.
The Colossus (1810) oil on canvas, Prado.
The Third of May 1808 (1814) oil on canvas, Prado.
Saturn Devouring his Son (1823) oil on canvas, Prado.
Invention series (paintings, 1793)
Caprices series (etchings, 1799)
Disasters of War series (aquatints, 1812-15)
Black Paintings series (14 murals, 1820-23)

El Greco (1541-1614)
Greatest Greek painter, active in Spain; large-scale austere religious paintings.
Holy Trinity
(1577-9) oil on canvas, Prado Museum, Madrid.
Burial of Count Orgaz (1586) oil on canvas, Church of Sainto Tome, Toledo.
Portrait of a Cardinal (1600) oil on canvas, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
View of Toledo (1610) oil on canvas, Metropolitan Museum, NY.

Matthias Grunewald (1475-1528)
Greatest German Northern Renaissance artist after Albrecht Durer.
Isenheim Altarpiece (1512-15) oil on panel, Musee d'Unterlinden, Colmar.

Francesco Guardi (1712-93)
Venetian painter noted for his Impressionistic watery landscapes of Venice.
Grey Lagoon (1765) oil on canvas, Museo Poldi Pezzoli, Milan.
A Venetian Capriccio (late 18th Century) oil on canvas, private collection.

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H

Frans Hals (1582-1666)
First great portraitist of the 17th century Dutch Realist School of Painting.
The Laughing Cavalier (1625) oil on canvas, Wallace Collection, London.

 

William Hogarth (1697-1764)
One of the greatest pioneers of English figurative art.
The Rake's Progress (8 scenes) (c.1735) oils, Sir John Soane's Museum, London.
Marriage a la Mode (6 scenes) (c.1743) oils, National Gallery, London.

Hokusai (1760-1849)
Arguably the greatest Japanese Ukiyo-e painter and printmaker
The Great Wave off the Coast of Kanagawa (1830-2) Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Hans Holbein The Younger (1497-1543)
German Renaissance painter active in Basel & London; one of the greatest ever portrait painters.
Lady with the Squirrel and a Starling (1526-8) oil on panel, National Gallery, London.
The Ambassadors (1533) oil on oak, National Gallery, London.
Portrait of Henry VIII (1540) oil on wood, Galleria Nazionale d'Arte, Rome.

Pieter de Hooch (1629-84)
Outstanding Dutch Realist genre painter of the Delft School. Follower of Vermeer.
Courtyard of a House in Delft (1658) oil on canvas, National Gallery, London.

Samuel van Hoogstraten (1627-78)
Dutch painter, noted for domestic genre-paintings, and mastery of interior perspective.
View down the Corridor (1662) oil on panel, Dyrham Park, UK.

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I-J-K

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780-1867)
Influential French neoclassical oil painter noted for his polished 'academic' style of painting.
Bather of Valpincon (1808) oil on canvas, Louvre, Paris.
The Grand Odalisque (1814) oil on canvas, Louvre.
The Turkish Bath (1863) oil on canvas, Louvre.

Juan de Juanes (Vicente Juan Macip) (1510-79)
Foremost painter in Valencia during the later 16th century. Best remembered for his Italian style of painting, with a Netherlandish twist.
The Last Supper (c.1560) Prado, Madrid.

Willem Kalf (1619-93)
One of the greatest Dutch Realist painters of still life.
Still Life with Chinese Porcelain Jar (1662) oil on canvas, Gemaldegalerie, SMPK, Berlin.

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L

Thomas Lawrence (1769-1830)
Portraitist, successor to Joshua Reynolds as Royal Portrait Painter to George III.
Sarah Goodin Barrett Moulton: "Pinkie" (1794) Huntington Gallery, San Marino.

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
Creator of the greatest ever portrait in classical art.
Virgin of the Rocks (1484) oil on wood, Louvre, Paris.
Lady with an Ermine (1490) oil on panel, Czartoryski Museum, Krakow
Last Supper (1495-98) fresco, Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan.
Mona Lisa (1503) oil on wood, Louvre, Paris.

Limburg Brothers - Paul, Jan, Herman (c.1387-1416)
French International Gothic book illustrators, panel painters; Philip II of Burgundy/Duc de Berry.
Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (1416) Musee Conde Chantilly.

Filippino Lippi (1457-1504)
Pupil of his father Fra Filippo Lippi and Botticelli.
Virgin and Child with Saints (Madonna of the Otto) (1485) tempera, Uffizi.

Stephan Lochner (1400-51)
Finest 15th century artist of Cologne, noted for his altarpieces.
The Last Judgement (c.1440) oil on wood, Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Cologne.

Claude Lorrain (1600-82)
French painter, daughtsman, pioneer of classical Italianate pastoral landscapes.
Landscape with the Marriage of Isaac and Rebecca (1648) oil, National Gallery, London.

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M-N-O

Andrea Mantegna (1430-1506)
Key early Renaissance artist in Padua, Mantua; noted for foreshortening technique.
Camera degli Sposi frescoes (c.1474) Ducal Palace, Mantua.
(For example: The Court of Ludovico II Gonzaga (c.1474) fresco)
Lamentation over the Dead Christ (c.1490) oil on canvas, Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan.

Tommaso Masaccio (1401-28)
One of the greatest Florentine Early Renaissance painters, master of linear perspective.
Brancacci Chapel Frescoes (1424-8) Church of Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence
Tribute Money (c.1425-6) fresco, Brancacci Chapel.
Expulsion from the Garden of Eden (c.1425-6) fresco, Brancacci Chapel.
The Holy Trinity (1428) fresco, Santa Maria Novella, Florence.

Hans Memling (1433-94)
His painting spans the Gothic and the early Renaissance.
Last Judgment Triptych (1471) oil on panels, Muzeum Narodowe, Gdansk.
Donne Triptych (1480) oil on oak, National Gallery, London.

Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564)
Arguably the greatest-ever painter and sculptor in the history of art.
Genesis Fresco (1508-12) Sistine Chapel Ceiling, Vatican, Rome.
Creation of Adam (God Passing the Spark of Life) (1511) part of the Genesis fresco.
Last Judgment Fresco (1535-41) Sistine Chapel Altar Wall, Vatican.

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P

Michael Pacher (1434-98)
Austrian/German Renaissance Tyrolese painter and sculptor, influenced by Mantegna.
Wolfgang Altarpiece (1471-81) Salzkammergut.
Altarpiece of the Church Fathers (1484) oil on wood, Alte Pinakothek, Munich.

Parmigianino (1503-40)
Parma-born Mannerist painter/engraver, influenced by Correggio, Michelangelo & Raphael.
Madonna of the Long Neck (1535) oil on panel, Uffizi, Florence.

Joachim Patenier (Patinier or Patinir) (1485-1524)
Netherlandish painter, underrated highly innovative pioneer of narrative landscapes.
Journey Into the Underworld (1522) oil on panel, Prado, Madrid.
The Rest on the Flight into Egypt (1515) oil on panel, Koninklijk Museum, Antwerp; and Prado.

Perugino (1450-1523)
Umbrian school Renaissance painter, master of oil painting, noted for Sistine Chapel frescoes.
Christ Giving the Keys to St Peter (1481-2) fresco, Sistine Chapel, Vatican.
Pieta (1494-5) tempera, Uffizi, Florence.

Piero della Francesca (1420-92)
Umbrian painter, one of the greatest artists of the early Renaissance.
The Baptism of Christ (1440-50) tempera on panel, National Gallery, London.
Flagellation of Christ (1460) oil and tempera, Galleria Nazionale delle Marche, Urbino.
Portraits of Federico da Montefeltro and Battista Sforza (1465-66) tempera, Uffizi.
Brera Madonna (1472-4) oil on panel, Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan.

Piero di Cosimo (1461-1521)
Eccentric, reclusive Florentine painter, best known for allegorical paintings.
Portrait of Simonetta Vespucci (1482) tempera, Musee Conde, Chantilly.

Pietro da Cortona (1596–1669)
Quadraturista, famous for his High Baroque trompe l'oeil ceiling frescoes.
Allegory of Divine Providence and Barberini Power (1633-39) Palazzo Barberini.

Jacopo Pontormo (1494-1556)
Pupil of Andrea del Sarto and Leonardo; was a most influential Italian Mannerist artist.
Cosimo de' Medici Il Vecchio (1518-19) oil on panel, Uffizi, Florence.

Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665)
Greatest French painter of the 17th century, early exponent of the 'academic' style of art.
Rape of the Sabines (1638) oil on canvas, Louvre, Paris.
The Holy Family on the Steps (1648) oil on canvas, National Gallery, Washington DC.

Andrea Pozzo (1642-1709)
Jesuit painter, architect and art theoretician. Producer of some of the best Baroque paintings.
Triumph and Apotheosis of St Ignatius (1694) ceiling fresco, San Ignazio, Rome.

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Q-R

Henry Raeburn (1756-1823)
Leading Scottish portrait artist, painted direct onto canvas without sketches.
The Rev Robert Walker Skating on Duddingston Loch (1784) oil, National Gallery of Scotland.

Raphael (1483-1520)
Probably the greatest painter of the High Renaissance.
The School of Athens (1510-11) fresco, Raphael Rooms Vatican.
The Sistine Madonna (1513) Gemaldegallerie, Dresden.
Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione (1514-15) Louvre, Paris.
Pope Leo X with Cardinals (1518) Uffizi, Florence.
The Transfiguration (1518-20) Pinacoteca Apostolica, Vatican

Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669)
Greatest Dutch Old Master of portraiture, master of etching and chiaroscuro technique.
The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp (1632) Mauritshuis, The Hague.
The Night Watch (1642) Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer (1653) Metropolitan Museum, NY.
Bathsheba Holding King David's Letter (1654) Louvre Museum, Paris.
Portrait of Jan Six (1654) The Six Collection, Amsterdam.
Jacob Blessing the Children of Joseph (1656) Gemaldegallerie, Kassel.
The Conspiracy of Julius Civilis (1661) National Museum, Stockholm.
The Syndics of the Cloth-Makers Guild (The Staalmeesters) (1662) Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
The Suicide of Lucretia (c.1666) The Minneapolis Institute of Arts.
The Jewish Bride (Isaac and Rebecca) (c.1665-8) Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.

Joshua Reynolds (1723-92)
Arguably the greatest early portraitist and figurative painter in England.
Portrait of Nelly O'Brien (1762) oil on canvas, The Wallace Collection.

Jusepe Ribera (1591-1652)
Caravaggesque style Spanish painter, active in Naples.
The Holy Trinity (1635) oil on canvas, Prado Museum, Madrid.
Saint Paul the Hermit (1640) oil on canvas, Prado, Madrid.
Boy with a Club Foot (1642) Louvre, Paris.

Francisco Ribalta (1565-1628)
His realism strongly influenced Spanish Baroque art and set the scene for Velazquez, Ribera and Zurbaran. This was his greatest masterpiece.
Christ Embracing St Bernard (1625-27) Prado.

Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)
Flemish painter, greatest Baroque artist of Northern Europe, taught Anthony Van Dyck.
Samson and Delilah (1609) oil on wood, National Gallery, London.
Descent from the Cross (1611-14) oil on wood, Cathedal of Our Lady, Antwerp.
Rape of the Daughters of Eluccipus (1618) oil on wood, Alte Pinakothek, Munich.
The Village Fair (1635) oil on panel, Louvre Museum, Paris.

Jacob Van Ruisdael (1628-82)
Pupil of his uncle Salomon Van Ruisdael, one of the greatest Dutch landscape artists.
The Mill at Wijk Near Duurstede (1670) oil on canvas, Rijksmuseum.
Jewish Cemetery at Ouderkerk (1670) oil on canvas, Alte Meister, Dresden.

Salomon van Ruysdael (1602-70)
One of the greatest Dutch Realist landscape painters, active in Haarlem.
River Landscape near Arnhem (1651) oil on panel, Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg.

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S

Harmen van Steenwyck (1612-56)
One of the leading exponents of vanitas painting in 17th century Dutch art.
An Allegory of the Vanities of Human Life (1640) National Gallery, London.

Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828)
With John Singleton Copley, was the greatest exponent of portraiture in early America.
George Washington (1796) oil on canvas, Brooklyn Museum of Art, New York.

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T

Giambattista Tiepolo (1696-1770)
Venetian genius of illusionistic fresco painting; greatest Italian painter of the 18th century.
Abraham and the Three Angels (c.1730) oil, Scula Grande di San Rocco, Venice.
Apollo Bringing the Bride (1751) ceiling fresco, Wurzburg Palace.

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti) (1518-1594)
Greatest 16th century Venetian painter after Titian.
Adam and Eve (1550) oil on canvas, Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice.
The Crucifixion (1565) oil on canvas, Scuola Grande di San Rocco, Venice.
Nativity (1579-81) oil on canvas, Scuola Grande di San Rocco, Venice.
The Last Supper (1592-4) oil on canvas, St Giorgio Maggiore, Venice.

Titian (c.1477-1576)
Venice's finest painter and one of the greatest colourists in the history of art.
Assumption of the Virgin (1516-8) oil on wood, S. Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice.
Bacchus and Ariadne (1522) oil on canvas, National Gallery, London.
Venus of Urbino (1538) oil on canvas, Uffizi, Florence.
Pope Paul III with his Grandsons (1546) Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte.
Venus and Adonis (1553) oil on canvas, Prado Museum, Madrid.
The Rape of Europa (1559-62) oil on canvas, Isabella Stewart Gardener Museum, Boston.

JMW Turner (1775-1851)
Greatest ever English Impressionistic landscape artist, master of watercolour painting.
Burning of the House of Lords and Commons (1835) oil/ canvas, Philadelphia Museum of Art.
Interior at Petworth (1837), oil on canvas, Tate Gallery.
The Fighting Temeraire (1839) oil on canvas, National Gallery, London.
Dawn after the Wreck (1840) watercolour, British Museum, London.
Snow Storm: Steamboat off a Harbour's Mouth (1842) oil on canvas, Tate Gallery.
Festive Lagoon Scene (1845) oil on canvas, Tate Gallery.

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Paolo Uccello (1397-1475)
Early Renaissance Florentine painter noted for his witty figurative canvases.
Battle of San Romano (1440) tempera, National Gallery, London.
Hunt in the Forest (1470) oil, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

Giorgio Vasari (1511-1574)
Mannerist painter, famous for his volume of biographies of Italian artists - Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors and Architects.
The Wedding of Esther and Ahasuerus (1548) oil on canvas, State Museum, Arezzo.

Diego Velazquez (Spanish, 1599-1660)
The greatest Old Master from Spain.
Christ on the Cross (1632) oil on canvas, Prado Museum, Madrid.
Surrender of Breda (Las Lanzas) (c.1635) Prado.
Portrait of Pope Innocent X (1650) oil on canvas, Galleria Doria Pamphili, Rome.
Las Meninas (1656) oil on canvas, Prado.

Jan Vermeer (1632-1675)
The greatest ever genre-painter, leader of the Delft School of Dutch Realism.
Soldier and a Laughing Girl (c.1658) oil on canvas. The Frick Collection, New York.
The Milkmaid (c.1658-1660) oil on canvas. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
The Little Street (Street in Delft) (c.1657-1658) oil on canvas. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
Young Woman with a Water Jug/Pitcher (c.1662) Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Woman Holding a Balance (1662-3) National Gallery of Art, Washington DC.
Woman with a Pearl Necklace (c.1662-64) Staatliche Museum, Berlin.
The Music Lesson (Lady and Gentleman at the Virginals) (c.1665) British Royal Art Collection.
The Concert (c.1665-1666) Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston, MA. (Now Stolen)
Girl with a Pearl Earring (Head of a Girl with a Turban) (c.1665) Mauritshuis, the Hague.
The Art of Painting: An Allegory (c.1666-1673) Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
The Lacemaker (c.1669-1670) oil on canvas. Louvre, Paris.
Girl with a Red Hat (c.1666-1667) oil on canvas. National Gallery of Art, Washington DC.

Paolo Veronese (1528-88)
Verona-born, active in the Venetian School with Tintoretto after Titian.
Wedding Feast at Cana (1563) oil on canvas, Louvre, Paris.
Feast in the House of Levi (1573) oil on canvas, Academy Gallery, Venice.

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Jean Antoine Watteau (1684-1721)
Greatest French painter of his era, key figure in the Rococo style.
Pilgrimage to Cythera (1717) oil on canvas, Louvre, Paris.

Benjamin West (1738-1820)
First famous American artist, active in Britain, noted for his history paintings and portraits.
Death of General Wolfe (1770) oil on canvas, National Gallery of Canada.

Roger van der Weyden (1400-1464)
The greatest Netherlandish painter of the mid-15th century.
Descent From the Cross (Deposition of Christ) (1435-40) oil on oak panel, Prado Museum.
Seven Sacraments Altarpiece (1445) Koninklijk Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp.
The Lamentation Before the Tomb (1450) oil on panel, Uffizi Gallery.

 

Richard Wilson (1713-82)
Father of English School of landscape painting.
Destruction of Niobe's Children (1760) oil on canvas, Private Collection.

Emanuel de Witte (1616-92)
Dutch painter noted for his architectural paintings of church interiors.
Interior of a Church (1680) oil on canvas, Hamburger Kunsthalle, Hamburg.

Joseph Wright of Derby (1734-97)
Painter of English industrial age, follower of Caravaggio, master of Tenebrism.
An Experiment on a Bird in an Air Pump (1768) oil on canvas, National Gallery, London.

Francisco de Zurbaran (1598-1664)
Spanish painter, noted for his austere religious paintings and portraits.
Still Life with Oranges and Lemons (1633) oil, Fondazione Contini-Bonacossi, Florence.
Christ on the Cross (1627) oil on canvas, Art Institute of Chicago.

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