Cubists and Futurists
Reacting against the "prettifying nature" of Impressionism,
Cubist artists focused on intellectual issues concerning the two-dimensional
picture-plane. Futurists focused on the 2-D representation of motion and
Cubist, Dadaist and Surrealist painter, based in France.
Co-inventor of Analytical and Synthetic Cubism.
Pablo Picasso (1881-1973)
Co-founder of Cubism; greatest sculptor/painter of the 20th century.
Juan Gris (1887-1927)
Spanish painter, leading Cubist theorist.
Fernand Leger (1881-1955)
Fourth Cubist painter, muralist, stained glass and textile artist.
Co-author with Metzinger of Du Cubisme, the first treatise on Cubism.
Theorist on Cubism; co-wrote Du Cubisme with Gleizes.
Abstract artist, founder of Orphism (Orphic Cubism) or Simultanism.
Cubist painter, Dadaist sculptor ("readymades"), pioneer
Giacomo Balla (1871-1958)
Italian Futurist painter and sculptor, noted for Dynamism of a Dog
on a Leash
Umberto Boccioni (1882-1916)
Italian Futurist sculptor, noted for Unique Forms of Continuity in
Noted for their integration of art, technology and industrial design.
Painter, designer, sculptor; founder of Soviet Constructivism.
El Lissitzky (1890-1941)
Abstract painter, architect, designer, noted for Proun series, and graphic
Naum Gabo (1890-1977)
Born Naum Borisovich Pevzner, best known for his Constructivism/kinetic
Hungarian Constructivist artist, designer, Bauhaus teacher; Photograms.
Figure painters specializing in true-life genre paintings and portraits.
Leader of the Group of Eight and the New York Ashcan School of painting.
George Wesley Bellows
Ashcan school painter noted for urban cityscapes & A Stag at Sharkey's.
Edward Hopper (1882-1967)
American artist, noted for his narrative urban genre-paintings.
Thomas Hart Benton
Missouri-born American Regionalist painter, muralist.
Grant Wood (1892-1942)
Iowa regionalist painter, noted for his masterpiece American Gothic.
America's great populist illustrator, noted for his nostalgic subject
Andrew Wyeth (1917-2009)
One of America's top artists in the realism style, noted for Christina's
Lucian Freud (b.1922)
British artist noted for his banal masterpieces of figurative art.
Artists with a left-wing political agenda, whose works typically contain
a moral or social message.
Clemente Orozco (1883-1949)
Mexican fresco muralist, socialist realism style.
Diego Rivera (1886-1957)
Leader of the Mexican Murals
Revival, married to Frida Kahlo.
David Alfaro Siqueiros
Communist muralist, the most radical of the Mexican social realists.
Ben Shahn (1898-1969)
American social realist painter, famous for frescoes, gouaches, lithographs.
The Italian Scuola di Pittura Metafisica is noted for its edgy compositions
in which not everything is as it appears.
De Chirico (1888-1978)
Co-founder (with Carlo Carra) of Metaphysical
Painting (Pittura Metafisica)
Outstanding still life artist in the minimalist tradition.
Art Deco and Precisionism
Art Deco was more of a decorative art and design movement, reflecting
the sleek geometric forms of the new consumer age, while Precisionism
was a style of architectural painting whose linear precision was used
to reflect the industrial landscape of the Machine-Age.
de Lempicka (c.1895-1980)
Glamorous celebrity portraitist, trained under Andre Lhote.
Avant-garde painter noted for industrial landscapes, and also poster-portraits.
Painter/ photographer whose works paid homage to American machinery/plant.
For Art Deco skyscraper designers, see:
These visual artists, many of whom had been members of Dada, aimed
to generate an entirely new set of imagery by liberating the creative
power of the unconscious mind.
Founder, spokesman and theorist of the Surrealism movement.
Paul Nash (1889-1946)
British surrealist, War Artist, illustrator, landscape painter.
Man Ray (1890-1976)
Dada and Surrealist artist; photographer, painter, sculptor.
Max Ernst (1891-1976)
Multi-media collage artist, painter, sculptor, inventor of frottage.
Joan Miro (1893-1983)
Spanish painter: ceramicist, etcher, lithographer, mosaicist, glass artist.
Paul Delvaux (1897-1994)
Belgian surrealist painter, noted for paintings of dream-like female nudes.
Rene Magritte (1898-1967)
Belgian classical artist, Surrealist painter.
Salvador Dali (1904-89)
Most famous member of Surrealism movement of the 1930s.
Yves Tanguy (1900-55)
French-born, self-taught abstract Surrealist painter.
Alex Colville (b.1920)
Canadian Magic Realist painter noted for The Swimming Race.
These visual artists exemplify geometric abstraction. Unfortunately,
instead of discovering new pathways, most of these purists ended up repeating
Member of De Stijl design group, noted for geometric minimalist paintings.
Theo van Doesburg
Abstract painter, designer, art theorist; founder of De Stijl design
Josef Albers (1888-1976)
Bauhaus instructor, best known for Homage to the Square paintings.
Poster artist, painter; Hungarian founder of Op-Art; pioneer of Kinetic
Bridget Riley (b.1931)
Leader of British Op-Art movement, a form of geometric abstract painting.
Sean Scully (b.1945)
Irish-American artist renowned for his monumental geometric shapes.
These visual artists discovered new rules of line and depth, new
shapes, new materials and new ways of interacting with space.
Best known for his large-scale female nude sculpture, The Mediterranean.
Ernst Barlach (1870-1938)
German Expressionist wood carver, ceramic and stone sculptor.
James Earle Fraser
Classical realist American sculptor noted for The End of the Trail
Romanian artist, arguably the first sculptor of the modern era.
Anna Hyatt Huntington
American realist sculptor best known for her equestrian/animal statues.
Jacob Epstein (18801959)
Controversial British-American artist inspired by primitivism and ancient
Jean Arp (1886-1966)
Dada artist, abstract sculptor, married to Sophie Taeuber-Arp.
Highly influential Russian-American Cubist sculptor.
Ossip Zadkine (1890-1967)
Russian artist best known for his bronze sculpture Destroyed City.
Jacques Lipchitz (1891-1973)
Lithuanian-born Russian-Jewish Cubist sculptor.
Ben Nicholson (1894-1982)
Abstract sculptor/painter, noted for his low-relief sculptures "white
Alexander Calder (1898-1976)
Inventor of kinetic sculpture (mobiles and stabiles).
Henry Moore (1898-1986)
Best known for his reclining nudes & organic forms in wood, bronze
Louise Nevelson (1899-1988)
Assemblage artist, known for her abstract "sculptured walls".
Known for his elongated, emaciated figurative sculptures.
Jean Dubuffet (1901-1985)
Painter/sculptor best known for his vinyl-painted polystyrene sculpture.
Barbara Hepworth (1903-1975)
Perhaps the greatest British abstract sculptor, Member of St Ives School.
David Smith (1906-1965)
Highly influential American sculptor of the post-war period.
Meret Oppenheim (1913-85)
Famous for her Surrealist sculpture, Furry Breakfast.
These visual artists, divided loosely between exponents of "action-painting"
and "colour field", sought to escape the outside world and focus
on their relationship with the viewer. The first major American art movement.
Gestural expressionist, colourist, pioneered 'drip-painting'; famous art
Mark Tobey (1890-1976)
Noted for his calligraphic paintings, influenced by Oriental cultures.
Mark Rothko (1903-70)
Co-inventor of Colour Field painting; noted for monumental colourist
Famous but schematic abstract expressionist painter influenced by Surrealism.
Arshile Gorky (1904-48)
Influential Armenian-American surrealist/abstract expressionist painter.
American artist, co-inventor with Rothko/Newman of Colour Field
Willem De Kooning
One of the key figures in American Abstract Expressionist art.
Leading figure in Colour Field Painting and Post-Painterly Abstraction.
Lee Krasner (1908-84)
Married to Jackson Pollock; influenced his gestural style of action painting.
Franz Kline (1910-1962)
New York School gesturalist, known for calligraphic black-and-white pictures.
Inventor of 'action-painting', a type of Abstract Expressionism.
Philip Guston (1913-80)
Abstract Impressionist who switched to Neo-Expressionist representationalism.
Nicolas de Stael
Russian-French painter; colourist, exponent of Lyrical Abstraction.
Painter, collage artist, printmaker, noted for Elegy to the Spanish
Patrick Heron (1920-99)
English colourist painter associated with Lyrical Abstraction.
Sam Francis (1923-1994)
Influenced by Tachisme, Lyrical Abstraction and Japanese calligraphic
Pupil of Josef Albers; member of Hard Edge Painting; noted for Target
Dated Greenberg; married Robert Motherwell; founded colour stain painting.
Frank Stella (b.1936)
Minimalism pioneer, Post-Painterly Abstraction painter, shaped-canvas
These visual artists made light-hearted fun of the forms revered
and worshipped by the Consumer Society of the 1960s. Suddenly art could
be made of anything.
Painter in comic-strip style; noted for benday dot paintings, like Wham!
Noted for his "Combines", collages, assemblages and conceptual
Andy Warhol (1928-87)
Most successful Pop-Artist; noted for screenprints, popular portraits.
Claes Oldenburg (b.1929)
Swedish sculptor, noted for his Pop art images of everyday objects.
Jasper Johns (b.1930)
Highly successful American painter, sculptor, printmaker, pioneer of Pop
David Hockney (b.1937)
English artist, noted for portraits, swimming-pool paintings, photo-collages.
Difficult to categorize and encompassing very different styles,
these visual artists exemplify all the innovative attributes of modern
& contemporary art.
American painter from Maine, noted for abstract Portrait of a German
American semi-abstract painter.
English industrial landscape and genre-painter.
Frida Kahlo (1907–1954)
Mexican surrealist, symbolist painter, wife of Diego Rivera.
Balthus (Count Balthazar
Klossowski de Rola) (1908-2001)
Figurative painter, known for his erotic Lolita-type subjects.
Francis Bacon (1909-92)
Famous for grotesque pictures and surrealistic-style compositions.
Agnes Martin (1912-2004)
Minimalist painter noted for her hand-drawn pencil grids on gesso ground.
Wols: Alfred Otto Wolfgang
Leading exponent of Art Informel, Tachisme and Abstraction
Asger Jorn (1914-73)
Gesturalist abstract expressionist, founder of COBRA art group.
Karel Appel (1921-2006)
Dutch abstract painter, member of COBRA and Tachisme art movements.
Antoni Tapies (b.1923)
Spanish abstract painter; noted for his mixed-media works of Matter
Yves Klein (1928-62)
First real postmodernist painter and performance artist, founder of Nouveau
Realisme. Associated with the colour known as International Klein
British semi-abstract neo-expressionist portraitist, known for heavy impasto.
Greatest ever Columbian painter/sculptor, noted for obese figurative art.
Richard Estes (b.1932)
American painter of urban street scenes; pioneer of Superrealism.
Painter, installationist; champion of land art and large scale earthworks.
Controversial German painter noted for his Neo-Expressionism.
Chuck Close (b.1940)
Leading American photorealist painter, noted for huge self-portraits.
Anselm Kiefer (b.1945)
German Neo-Expressionist history painter noted for mixed media holocaust
Scottish subject-painter, noted for his poster art and genre-paintings.
American graffiti artist known for his stencil art and gallery paintings.
Tracey Emin (b.1963)
British multimedia postmodernist artist, notorious for My Bed (1998).
Damien Hirst (b.1965)
One of the most successful but controversial postmodernist
artists, a Turner Prize winner, noted for famous installations, like:
The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living
(1991), and For The Love of God (2007).
English graffiti terrorist and stencil artist known for his left-wing
Sculptors & Other Hypermodern Artists
These visual artists have taken the idea of plastic art to its
Noted for her feminist sculpture & monumental 'spider' sculptures
Joseph Beuys (19211986)
German avant-garde sculptor, assemblage and installation artist.
Cesar Baldaccini (1921-98)
French avant-garde assemblage artist famous for his compressed cars.
Anthony Caro (b.1924)
Successful British artist, known for abstract sculptures in welded metal.
Jean Tinguely (1925-1991)
Swiss experimental kinetic artist, noted for Homage to New York.
Duane Hanson (1925-96)
Famous for Superrealist sculptures of everyday American consumers.
Donald Judd (1928-94)
Avant-garde American minimalist artist; abstract sculptor.
Arman (1928-2005) (Armand Pierre
French assemblage artist and postmodernist sculptor known for his junk
Sol LeWitt (1928-2007)
Renowned for his minimalist, geometric sculptures.
Mark Di Suvero (b.1933)
Best known for his monumental iron/steel public sculpture.
Jeanne-Claude (b.1935; 1935-2009)
Noted for their 'empaquetage' wrapping art and huge interventions in nature.
Richard Serra (b.1939)
American minimalist noted for his process art and public steel sculptures.
Bruce Nauman (b.1941)
Multi-media artist known for his neon sculptures, video installations
John De Andrea (b.1941)
American figurative sculptor noted for his photorealist female nudes.
Gilbert & George
British postmodernist artists; performance art, conceptualism, living
Antony Gormley (b.1950)
Turner Prize winner, noted for his huge sculpture Angel of the North.
Irish classical sculptor, noted for realist bronzes.
Anish Kapoor (b.1954)
Indian-born British Turner Prize winner, noted for his monumental public
Jeff Koons (b.1955)
Controversial but successful American artist; famous for his Neo-Pop artworks.
Famous for his architectural photographs of the disappearing buildings
of Paris. One of the greatest 19th
American photograhic artist, modern art dealer, Georgia O'Keeffe's husband.
One of the greatest art photographers
of his generation.
C-founder of Photo-Secession and "291" gallery of lens-based
art, New York.
Edward Weston (1886-1958)
Noted for still life photographs.
Paul Strand (1890-1976)
Exponent of straight photography; noted for early Cubist works.
Dorothea Lange (1895-1965)
Documentary photographer of the Great Depression.
Ansel Adams (1902-84)
Landscape photographer, noted for his photography of Yosemite National
Walker Evans (1903-75)
American camera artist famous for documentary pictures of Great Depression.
Greatest ever street photographer.
Robert Capa (1913-54)
Photojournalist and war photographer.
Irving Penn (1917-2009)
Fashion photography, portraits, ethnographical images.
Richard Avedon (1923-2004)
America's leading fashion photographer.
Le Baron Jenney (1832-1907)
Leader of First Chicago School of architecture.
Frank Lloyd Wright
Head of Prairie School; designed Guggenheim Art Museum, New York
Walter Gropius (1883-1969)
Head of Bauhaus; Professor of Architecture, Harvard Graduate Design School.
Mies van der Rohe
Leader of Second Chigo School of architecture
Le Corbusier (Charles-Edouard
Modernist architect, noted for functionalist designs and concrete Brutalism.
Fazlur Khan (1929-82)
The greatest high-rise engineer, "Father of Skyscraper Tower design".
The world's leading firm of skyscraper architects.