WHAT IS ART?
Baroque Architects (c.1600-1750)
Baroque art emerged during the second half of the 16th century, partly because of the prevailing political and religious uncertainty. The Protestant Reformation which began in 1517, cast doubt on the integrity and theology of the Roman Church across Europe. In due course, this led to a campaign of Catholic Counter-Reformation art, launched by Rome, to reinspire the masses and woo them away from Protestantism. By the start of the 17th century, religious art in general, and Baroque architecture in particular, had become a significant element in this propaganda campaign, and was also exploited by absolutist Catholic monarchs to buttress their rule. Baroque sculpture was also harnessed to the cause, as was Baroque painting. Frequently, all these art forms were combined in churches, and some of the best Baroque paintings were integral elements of the architectural setting. See, for instance, the glorious ceiling murals of Pietro da Cortona and Andrea Pozzo.
OF VISUAL ART
The Baroque Style of Architecture
Think of Baroque as a much more emotional, more elaborate, more illusionistic form of Renaissance architecture, with greater manipulation of light, colour, texture and perspective. It boasted more ostentatious exteriors; more complex less geometric but more unified floor-plans; a whole new series of trompe l'oeil effects, plus a host of wall and ceiling fresco decorations. All these architectural features were designed to dazzle the spectator, as were the surroundings of the building itself. This is exemplified above all by Bernini's design of St Peter's Square (1656-67) - in front of the domed St Peter's Basilica in Rome - whose architecture has received praise throughout the centuries for the elegance of its sublime classical proportions. (For more about building design in classical antiquity, see: Roman Architecture.) Another supreme example of Baroque architecture is the Palace of Versailles designed by Louis le Vau and Jules Hardouin Mansart for the French monarch Louis XIV.
Famous Baroque Architects
Here is a list of the greatest architects of the Baroque movement, together with their major design projects.
Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola
da Cortona (1596-1669)
Francois Mansart (1598-1666)
Le Vau (1612-70)
Hardouin Mansart (1646-1708)
See also French Baroque Artists.
Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach
Jakob Prandtauer (1660-1726)
Johann Dientzenhofer (1663-1726)
Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753)
Joseph Emanuel Fischer von Erlach
Johann Caspar Bagnato (1696-1757)
Hans Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff
Franz Anton Bagnato (Francesco
Antonio Bagnato) (1731-1810)
See also German Baroque Artists.
Churriguera Family of Spanish Baroque
Sculptors and Architects
Pedro de Ribera (1681-1742)
Niccolo Nasoni (Nicolau Nasoni)
Dientzenhofer Family of German Architects
Jakub Auguston (1668-1735)
Jan Blazej Santini Aichel (1677-1723)
It wasn't until the era of Petrine art under Tsar Peter the Great (1686-1725), that foreign architectural designers like Rastrelli, Andreas Schluter, and Leblond introduced the style of Russian Baroque - using elements drawn from Baroque, Rococo and Neoclassical art.
Prince Dmitry Vasilyevich Ukhtomsky
There was little new religious architecture in Flanders or Holland, not least because the area was mostly Protestant. Other forms of Baroque did survive, however. For details, see: Flemish Baroque Art and Dutch Baroque Art. For more about the Dutch Golden Age of painting, see: Dutch Realist School (c.1600-80) and Dutch Realist artists.
For more about the origins & development of painting/sculpture, see: Art Encyclopedia.